The german RR history is classified into Epoches actually the present day is Epoch VI.
Ia --> 1835 to 1870 several Kindoms
Ib --> 1871 to 1910 Imperial State
Ic --> 1910 to 1919 Imperial State
IIa --> 1919 to 1937 est. DRG
IIb --> 1937 to 1945 est. DR
IIc --> 1945 to 1949 military Gov.
IIIa --> 1949 to 1972 est. DB West
IIIb --> 1949 to 1972 est. DR East
In both german countries new Computer Numbers were created.
IVa --> 1972 to 1978 end of steam west
IVb --> 1972 to 1990 modern DR East
IVc --> 1978 to 1988 modern DB West
On October, 3rd of 1990 was the re-union of the former GDR into the FRG, the Iron Cutain felt down in November 1989.
Va --> 1989 to 1993 DB West new color scheme
Vb --> 1990 to 1993 DR east new color scheme
Vc --> 1993 to 2005 end of DB and DR both merged into DB AG as stockholder company actually owned by the state of 100 % of the stocks.
VI --> 2006 to present -> new red color scheme of the DB AG and lot of private RRs.
Before 1871 it gave hundreds of different RRs as state RRs of their dukes, earls or lords kingdoms. It gave no existing one national state but bigger kingdoms.
From 1870 to 1871 was the german war against france and germany won the war.
In 1871 the new Imperial National State had been declared as cunstitutional Monarchy with a Ceazar as King of Kindoms.
A two chamber parlament created laws for all separated Kingdoms in Germany. It gave different bigger state RRs.
KPEV - Prussian RR
K.Würt.St.E - RR of Würtemberg
K.Bay.St.E - RR of Bavaria
DKEV - German Colonial RRs
DSWAE - German South-West Colonial RR
OMEG - Otavi Mines and RR Company
K.Sächs.St.E. - RR of Saxony
Several other inner german bigger state RRs
The in 1919 established DRG existed only until 1937 but not all Cars or Locos got the new sighns of the DR in 1937.
In 1937 the DR had been established.
Only the from the gouvernment used trains had the eagle with the hookcross all others shown the letters of the DR only.
The relief eagle was not well for higher speeds and were by the way very often had been stolen or lost on the journey, so the DR painted the sighn onto cars or locos.
The end of steam date at the DR was in end of february of 1993.
The last publication of the old signalling of all different RRs was before 1875.
In 1875 had been published in first time the general valid rule books of:
MBO --> Military RR Orders
EBO --> RR Construction and Operation Orders
SO --> Signalling Orders
Station List --> Station Classes and loading docks are noticed there like the VA - Traffic Authority, MA - Machinery Authority, BA - RR Transportation Authority, BM - RR Maintenance or EVA - RR Experimental Authority
In 1904 more complex rule books had been published, important changes came onto special sites which needed to add into the rule books.
In 1935 gave it new laws of the public and how a RR can be operated more efficiency than before.
Onto this drawing you are seeing 5 different aspects of a semaphore signal.
Description from left to right:
1.) Hp0 - Stop - red lense by night
2.) Hp1 - Go - white light as incoming signal and proceed to stop on next signal - green lense as outgoing start signals, followed turnouts onto straight direction
3.) Hp2 - Caution - 2 white lights as incoming signal proceed to stop on next signal - 2 green lenses as start signal - max 1 following turnout from or into main route set, max speed limit by 40 Km/h
4.) Hp3 - Caution - 3 white lights as incoming signal proceed to stop on next signal - 3 green lenses as start signal - in minimum two turnouts on diverging route are following, max speed limit 40 Km/h
5.) HpRu - Line Closed, no traffic allowed - blue lense by night
It gave signals with the top arm only, they had the aspects 1,2 and 5 only.
It gave signals with two arms only, they had the aspects 1, 2, 3 and 5 only.
It gave combined signals with two arms, they had the aspects 1 and 3 only.
It gave combined signals with three arms, they had the aspects 1, 3 and 4 only.
It gave combined signals with three arms, they had the aspects 1 and 4 only.
The HpRu Signal - Line Closed, no traffic allowed - was used on station sidings of loading docks or loding areas and on platform tracks, when public people were there to enter the train or loading or unloading anything.
On tracks outside of stations this signal had to be used for the other direction of that railway track where actually traffic happens.
Before any train movement could be done again the public people needed to leave the platform or loading areas behind the gates.
The above drawing shows signals of pre 1910.
It gave repeater distant signals which stood 1000 meters = 1 Km ahead the signal.
These Distand signals had a braced green disk with green lense ahead a white shining lantern. The disk could be moved into invisible horizontal position:
Vr0 - Green Disk, green light - awaiting Stop on next Signal
Vr1 - invisible horizontal Disk, white light - awaiting Go or Caution onto next Signal.
In 1905 added a red randed white arrow to this Distant signal.
Vr1 - changed into awaiting Go on next Signal
Vr2 - Green Disk visible, red/white arrow moved out in diagonal position a second green light was schown in diagonal position - awaiting Caution onto next Signal
After lot of very heavy Accidents,
It gave big changes to the signal night lights.
The top arm have red and green lenses only, the up to both arms below got orange/amber lenses.
The distant signals got an orange white randed disk, which could be moved into horizontal invisible position. The red-white arrow moved into an angle of 45°. The lantern lights were in diagonal position above each other.
Vr0 - awaiting Stop - visible orange disk, arrow vertical - orange above orange
Vr1 - awaiting Go - invisible horizontal disk, arrow vertical - green above green
Vr2 - awaiting normal Caution - invisible disk, arrow in 45° - green above orange
Vr3 - awaiting Caution of Danger - visible disk, arrow in 45° - green above two orange lights
In 1935 the signals lost their third arm and the distants got Vr3 aspect as new Vr2 aspect but with one orange light only.
The HpRu aspect got cancelled.
During the Epoches I and II until 1935 some former Prussian signals showed the other direction signals onto same Poles or Masts. Such signals had been removed and replaced so that only one direction is beeing displayed only.
If there was not enough space for signals than a sighn shows the sight and location where it is being placed.
A white board with black randed X says this is the location of the Signal.
A horizontal board with six black and white squares (Chessboard) with above arrow to the left says the signal will be placed left side of the tracks. The black randed X says on the foot of the signal that is is the signal standing this position.
The end of train sighns are important to Signal or Interlocking towers only.
These sighns showing the signal men or crew that a train arrived completely the section and the the train did not lost any car.
By using Signal blocks the signal men or crews needed blocking the sections.
Today, some Semaphores are allready existing, it gives some private RRs with own tracks where they re-installed the old signal technics of 1892 again.
On state RR lines are sometimes could be found the old semaphores, too but the newer ones mostly past 1935.
The modern mainlines have mostly modern signal equipment only.
Locomotive Signalling onto Single track routes had been changed, too.
Train following movements into one block in short distances to each other had been quitted and cancelled, so the headlight position above the smokebox were not used again.
The end of train lanterns got plugs that it could be used into sockets mounted onto every car above the buffers in the left and right. The allowed minimum was one end of train sighn or lantern in the right.
Passenger cars got mounted end of train lamps onto both sides in the left and right.